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Credit: Beth Evans Is putting beer in your Christmas pudding odd? But some people were surprised to see that the version made by the royal household was almost exactly their family recipe. The original started with 5lbs 2. Each of the 17 ingredients came from somewhere in the Empire — currants from Australia, demerara from Guyana, citrus peel from South Africa. Christmas pudding is a great example of modern mythologising.
Tweet Older women aged 75 years or more in the EU were more likely than older men to face Ctprus difficulties paying for basic goods and services inwith the severe material deprivation rate for older men at 3. Full article Household composition among older people Recent decades have been characterised by a fall in the average size of householdsreflecting — at least in part — lower fertility rates, a higher of divorces and the dissolution of extended households.
A growing and share of older people in the EU are living alone particularly older women : they form a particularly vulnerable group in society, with an increased risk of poverty or social exclusion. Inalmost three fifths In Cyprus and the Netherlands, approximately three quarters of all older men were living in households as part of a couple, while womenn share was less than half in Spain, Latvia, Malta, Slovakia, Bulgaria, Romania and Poland — where a relatively high proportion of older men were living in other types of household, for example, with other family members, friends or other persons.
Older women aged 65 years or more were much more likely to be living alone: inthe share of older women living in households composed of a single person was More than half of all older women in Denmark and Estonia were living alone, while the lowest shares of older women living alone were recorded in Cyprus Nevertheless, some older people move into institutional householdssuch as retirement or nursing homes; this may occur out of choice for example, not wishing to live alone or because it is no longer possible for older people to carry on living at home for example, due to complex long-term care needs.
The very old are more likely to be frail and therefore to need services such as those provided within institutional households. While most healthcare costs in the EU are covered by social protection systems, long-term social care is usually treated in a different manner; indeed, it is rare that such services are covered to the same extent as healthcare. This means that the responsibility for financing institutional care often resides with the older person needing such care or with their family.
In the latest census ij that are available3. This was twice as high as the corresponding share recorded for older men 1.
Inhouseholds in the EU had an average of 1. Older people had more rooms in their dwellings : on average, 2. The most common cause of under-occupation is because older individuals or couples continue to live in the same property long after their children have left the family home, despite it being, for example, large, expensive to heat and maintain, or ill-adapted. The average of rooms per person for households composed of a single person aged 65 years or more was particularly high in Belgium, Luxembourg, Spain and Cyprus 4.
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By contrast, the average of rooms was relatively low for all households and for households composed of older people in Latvia and across most of the eastern EU Member States except for Hungary. By contrast, the proportion of older people aged 65 years or more living in under-occupied dwellings was close to half This pattern — Cyprs higher share of older people than working-age adults living in under-occupied dwellings — was observed in all of the EU Member States.
The share of older people living in under-occupied dwellings peaked at Insome By contrast, more than one third In several eastern and southern EU Member States, as well as Lithuania and Ireland, a very high share of older people living alone were homeowners. At the other end of the range, more than half of the older people living alone in Cyprus, Germany, the Netherlands and Austria which recorded the highest share, at Older people living alone were more likely to be homeowners Older people Cyrus 65 years or more living alone in the EU were more likely than average to be homeowners, irrespective of whether they had an outstanding mortgage or housing loan: inalmost two thirds This generational gap was particularly pronounced in Italy, Luxembourg, Finland, Greece and Spain, where older people were much more likely to be homeowners.
By contrast, the share of older people living alone who were homeowners in Slovakia and Malta was slightly lower than the average recorded for all people living alone. Housing costs include expenses such as rent or the interest part of mortgage payments, as well as property-related wwomen taxes, the cost of utilities such as water, electricity or gasother fuels such as solid or liquid fuels and bottled gashome repairs and maintenance.
Inapproximately one tenth 9. An almost identical rate was recorded for older people aged 65 years or moreat 9. Although the proportion of older people who were overburdened by their housing costs in Greece iin relatively high at In a similar vein, older people in Spain, Italy, Luxembourg, Portugal and Ireland were less likely to be overburdened by housing costs — a difference of at least 2.
By contrast, the housing cost overburden rate was at least 2. This was 3.
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This pattern — where a greater share of older women than older men were overburdened by housing costs — was repeated in all but three of the EU Member States. The eomen cost overburden rate withh higher among older men in Ireland and Malta; note that in both cases, relatively few older people in general were overburdened by housing costs.
In Cyprus, equal shares of older men and older women were overburdened by housing costs, just 1.
By contrast, the housing cost overburden rate for older women in was more than Relatively high shares of older women compared with older men were also overburdened by their housing costs in Sweden, Czechia and Romania. Severe material deprivation is defined as the enforced inability to pay for at least four of the following nine items: to pay rent, mortgage or utility bills or hire purchase repayments; to keep home adequately warm; to face unexpected expenses; to eat meat or proteins regularly; to go on holiday; to pay for a television set; to pay for a washing machine; to pay for a car; to pay for a telephone.
The impact of the crisis was apparent through untilafter which severe material deprivation rates for older people fell at a relatively fast pace, interrupted only by a slight upturn in Although not shown, severe material deprivation rates for younger generations were much higher than those for older people.
Furthermore, having initially fallen post, severe material deprivation rates for younger people, such as those in their twenties, were increasing again in Older women are generally more likely than older men to face severe difficulties in being able to pay for basic goods and services: this gap between the sexes peaked in the aftermath of the crisis, but narrowed thereafter for people aged years. A somewhat different pattern was observed for people aged 75 years or more: inthe EU severe material deprivation rate for men of this age was 3.
This may reflect a range of factors, including: labour market experiences the gender pay gap; women often having lower pension entitlements ; increased longevity among women extending the period over which their financial resources need to last ; a greater share of older women living alone a two-person household needs relatively fewer resources per person than a single-person household to maintain the same standard of living.
Although this inter-generational divide was generally in favour of older people, there were eight EU Member States — in eastern parts of the EU or in the Baltic Member States — where the severe material deprivation rate was higher for older people than it was for the total population; the two rates were the same in Slovakia. This was most notably the case in Bulgaria, as the severe material deprivation rate for older people stood at Inthe rate for older women in the EU was 5.
This pattern — where a greater share of older women than older men faced severe material deprivation — was repeated in all but four of the EU Member States. The severe material deprivation rate was higher among older men in Denmark, Sweden and Ireland data ; the gap was widest in Ireland at 1. In Cyprus, equal shares of older men and older women faced severe material deprivation.
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Inthe severe material deprivation rate for older women was 8. Relatively large differences — with rates for older women at least 4. One specific measure used within this domain is household arrears — in other words, the share of households that were late with payments for a mortgage or rent, utility bills or hire purchase repayments that are generally made with a monthly frequency.
Inthe proportion of EU households in arrears was 8. Older people were much less likely to be in arrears: 4.
This inter-generational divide likely reflects, among other factors, the high of older homeowners who have already paid-off their mortgage, as well as different attitudes to debt between the generations. In absolute terms, the share of households with one adult aged 65 years or more in arrears was much lower than the corresponding average for all households in Greece and Cyprus, with a difference of In relative terms, the difference was greatest in Cyprus, Belgium, Spain data and Luxembourg dataas the share of all households that were in arrears was 4.
These older properties are more likely to be in a poor condition, suffering from issues such as poor insulation and damp, or hazards such that it is more likely that their occupants may fall or otherwise injure themselves. One measure of energy poverty is the inability to keep a home adequately warm: this indicator is often connected to low levels of household income, energy inefficient homes and relatively high energy costs.
Among households composed of a single adult aged 65 years or more, this share was more than one tenth A variety of situations were observed among the EU Member States: in Luxembourg the opposite pattern was observed, with a below average share of households composed of a single adult aged 65 years or more unable to keep their home adequately warm and an above average share for households composed of two adults at least oleer of which was aged 65 years or more; in Belgium and Ireland datathe share of households unable to keep their home adequately warm was systematically lower than the average for all households for both types of household composed of older people; by contrast, in most of the Baltic and eastern Member States but not Hungaryas well as in Malta and Portugal, the share of households composed of older people unable to keep their home adequately warm was higher than the average for all households among both types of household composed of older people.
This pattern was repeated in a majority of the EU Member States, Seex a lower share of older people compared with the whole population living in dwellings with a leak, damp or rot. This difference was particularly pronounced in Denmark, where the share of witg older people living in dwellings with a leak, damp or rot was less than half the average for the whole population; this was also the case in Switzerland and Norway.
Among these are concerns linked to noise, pollution and crime, all three of which may be more prevalent in predominantly urban rather than rural regions. Indeed, this may explain, at least in part, why in households composed of older people in the EU were generally less likely than all households to report that they faced noise, environmental problems or crime in their local area.
Among the EU Member States where relatively high shares more than By contrast, a witth high proportion of households in Cyprus and Bulgaria reported that they faced crime, violence or vandalism in their local area and that this was more prevalent among households composed of older persons; in Cyprus this was the case for both types of households composed of older persons, whereas In Bulgaria it was only the case for households with womsn adults at least one of whom was aged 65 years or more.